are usually soluble in water solutions because they have hydrophilic
acids on their surfaces."
Amino acids have been called the building blocks of
life, and when
two or more are joined together they are called a peptide
and the bond that holds them together is a peptide bond. When
ten or more are linked up they may be called a polypeptide, and if they are ordered and folded
correctly, they become a protein. In this regard, a wikipedia article on peptide
bonds tells us that:
bond can be
broken by ... hydrolysis" *** (just by) ... "adding ... water"
(and that the) ... bonds in proteins are metastable, meaning that in the
presence of water they will break spontaneously." 2
on this topic
says that hydrolysis is:
"A chemical reaction in which water is used
to break the bonds of certain substances. In ...
living organisms, these substances are often ... such as ... between two amino acids in
Wilder-Smith, Ph.D. (organic chemistry), said the following with regard to
the problems associated with life beginning in water in a book on life's complexity.4
"Amino acids and other building blocks
present in the macromolecules of living matter aggregate to form larger
units ... by ... (a reaction)
The combinations usually
the elimination of one molecule of water between two
combining molecules. It is the removal of this molecule ...
which presents the major difficulty ... For ... (to do
so) requires energy
"A further difficulty arises in this
... elimination of water. For, in the prebiotic world,
it is assumed that the condensation reaction took place in the presence
of a large ... (supply) of water which would tend,
according to the law of mass action, to hinder the condensation process
and ... (promote) decomposition
(or breakdown of
peptides and polypeptides) ... The more water, the less
"If the reaction is to proceed in the
direction of the dipeptide, (or two amino acids joined
together) ... the water molecule ... (that results) must
be removed from the reaction ... since the reaction is
reversible. If it is not removed ... (it
hydrolyze (or separate) the dipeptide back ... to the
constituent amino acids ..."
This means the "primordial soup," or "warm
little pond" where Darwin speculated
that life began could
not have been simply water, since it would "hydrolyze" or break
down complex molecules back to their original amino acids as soon as they formed.
Dr. Charles McCombs explains the problem as
follows in an article called life
"Every time one
component reacts with a second component forming the polymer, the
chemical reaction also forms water as a byproduct ... There is a
rule of chemical reactions ... called the Law of Mass Action that says
all reactions proceed in a direction from highest to lowest
concentration. This means that any reaction that produces water cannot
be performed in the presence of water. This Law of Mass Action provides
a total hindrance to protein, DNA/RNA, and polysaccharide formation
because even if the condensation took place, the water from a supposed
primordial soup would immediately hydrolyze them. Thus, if they are
formed according to evolutionary theory, the water would have to be
removed ... which is impossible in a 'watery' soup." 5
But because the "watery soup" in living cells is surrounded by a membrane, the
"water" inside the cell "behaves
very differently" 6
than ordinary water. In fact, the "water" in a cell
is not water but a blend of water, amino acids, proteins, and many other chemicals
called cytosol. This mixture is the result of the DNA's ability to
regulate what goes in and out of the cell -- via numerous channels
that control and regulate what is allowed to pass through the cell membrane, and thus
maintain a favorable environment and PH for DNA,
RNA and protein synthesis and for life itself to exist.
If the concentration of amino
acids is high enough, some of them will link up with others to form
dipeptides and tripeptides. An article on this subject states that:
"It is important to recognize that by whatever reactions polymerization
(or the joining of amino acids) occurred,
they had to be reactions that would occur in an ... aqueous environment.
This presents difficulties because condensation of amino acids to
form peptides, or of nucleotides to form RNA or DNA, is not ...
favorable in aqueous (or water) solution.
"The explanation for this is partly that the
concentration of amino acids decreases as amino acids form pairs (called
dipeptides) in a solution. This decreased concentration causes the
velocity of the peptide synthesis reaction to slow down, and some
dipeptides begin breaking up, again becoming single amino acids. The
solution reaches equilibrium when just as many dipeptides dissociate as
very tiny fraction of the dipeptides add another amino acid to form a
... Oligopeptides (Oligo=few) and polypeptides (poly=many) will form
only very rarely. Tripeptides
dissociate faster than dipeptides in the same solution" 7
regard, a tripeptide has only three amino acids,
while the simplest protein has eight.
Another writer on
the evolution of life from non-life says this with regard to the primeval
molecules that form proteins, and nucleotide molecules that form DNA and RNA resist
combining at any temperature. To combine, they need the help of
mechanisms in a living cell or a biochemist in an organic chemistry
laboratory.18 It means that
nothing happens in the primeval soup, the pond of chemicals where
evolutionists believe life began. 8
regard to the cell's membrane, Dr. Jeffrey P. Tomkins says the following in a book on the
design and complexity of the cell:
membranes are ... quite complex and ... (function)
as more than
just a barrier ... Some key functions of the membrane involve the
import and export of chemical compounds through specialized
transmembrane channels, sensory and signaling processes via specialized
receptor proteins imbedded in the membrane, and ... (water)
regulation ... through special portals."
"Within the ... membrane is the internal cell matrix ... called cytosol or cytoplasm,
which is a semi-fluid substance. ... the complexity of
(which) ... seems to grow with every new discovery in cell biology."
Tomkins also tells us that water must be regulated and
controlled outside the cell as well in what is called the "extra
cellular matrix." 10
This means that the water of
yesteryear, or distant past, could not have
created life anymore than fuel, elements and metallic ore -- by themselves
-- could create a car, motorcycle, or airplane: even if given millions, billions, or trillions of years.
For more on why
the raw materials alone cannot produce life, see Life,
DNA, and Proteins 11
and the links below.
See also Proof
of a Creator and
is more Scientific.
Although chemists can make
DNA in their laboratories, they
can only do so under highly controlled conditions that simulate cytosol. They
achieve this by using a pre-existing DNA or gene (template), using the
right amount of water,
magnesium chloride, salt
and a pre-existing microscopic / molecular copy machine
DNA polymerase. Such would not be the case in nature,
since genes are not known to form by themselves, nor even simple proteins, much less complex ones
such as DNA polymerase, which consists of about 900 amino acids all linked
up in the right order. The same is true of the motor protein called helicase that spins
at 1800 rpms and that unwinds DNA so its information can be copied.
When two amino acids come together they are called a
peptide and the reaction called condensation
condensation reaction **** or dehydration synthesis. A nucleic acid
is a synonym for a nucleotide, and when two or more are joined together
they are called an oligonucleotide.
*** According to the American Heritage Dictionary of Science, hydrolysis is
"a process of decomposition in which a compound is broken down and
changed into other compounds by ...
(absorbing, or being diluted with)
For example, in food digestion, the food absorbs water and is broken down by
hydrolysis. The same dictionary says that to hydrolyze means
decompose by hydrolysis ..."
and that organic molecules
such as "Nucleic
acids, proteins, and polysaccharides contain many bonds that hydrolyze
In this regard, the combining words are hydro + lyse, where
means "of or having to do
with water" and lyse means to separate.
Think of a Condensed
can of Campbell's Soup. The fact that it is "condensed"
simply means that water has been removed.
2. Peptide Bond at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/peptide_bond.
4. The Creation of Life: a cybernetic
approach to evolution, 1970, pp.25-26. Available via used book
5. Chemistry by Chance: a formula for non-life, Charles
McCombs: Acts & Fact, 2/09, pp. 30-31:
7. Chemistry Refutes Chance Origin of Life:
Part III by Jon Covey, B.A., MT, and Anita Millen, M.D., M.P.H.,
between the theory and reality; John Michael
9. The Design and Complexity of the Cell,
Tomkins, Ph. D., 2012, pp. 24-25; www.icr.org/design-cell/
9 above by Tomkins, p. 79.
11. Life, DNA, and Proteins: Why raw materials on earth cannot produce life,
Did Life Begin?
Myth of Abiogenesis
Is Evolution Science or
Evidence that God Created Life
Book on the Mystery of Life's Origin
Copyright 2011 -- 2014
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Article is also available under the Titles:
Did Life Begin in Water? and
Is Water the Solution to How Life began?