Jennifer Responds to the comments below from The Age of the Earth Debate -- formerly at the link below.
"The DNA in Living organisms can make molecular copies of itself called RNA (with near perfect accuracy) and transfer that information to ribosomes. In other words, the RNA molecule is a mobile copy of DNA. Meaning that once the RNA copy is complete, it literally travels to a different part of the cell (i.e. the Ribosome) where the information is used to make proteins. Ribosomes are tiny protein factories that take the information from the RNA and use it to make homochiralic proteins from L-type amino acids. Proteins are not known to form naturally in slime-pools, or Ocean vents, or Laboratories, but rather are only made by living organisms." www.earthage.org/intro/a_closer_look_at_the_age_of_the_earth.htm
This part of your page is erroneous for what you leave out. Scientists are able to replicate DNA and RNA quite easily in the lab. I, myself have done tens of thousands of PCRs (polymerase chain reactions) where DNA is replicated. This process involves only a water, a set of salt buffers, magnesium chloride, DNA template, small DNA starter sequence and ONE protein, DNA polymerase. Your argument, I am sure is that it requires us to start with DNA. DNA molecules are easily synthesized in a lab; the starter DNA sequence, called a "primer" is actually ordered from a chemical supply company for about $3. We are able to synthesize strings of DNA a few hundred bases long.
Additionally, based on evolutionary theory, this is not how DNA replication, transcription and translation began. In prokaryotes (primitive bacteria), there is no compartmentalization of the cell, and as DNA is transcribed (made into RNA), ribosomes immediately attach based on the chemical properties of base pairing in the rRNA of the ribosome and begin translating the sequence into protein. Certainly the way it is done in higher organisms could not happen all at once, but we see incremental steps are possible.
Please correct the error of talking about DNA replication in highly evolved eukaryotes as evidence against the formation of life. This is patently incorrect.
Genetics, Cell Biology & Development B.S. 2010
Crop Sciences PhD (expected 2014)
Note that the "ONE Protein" that is necessary to make copies of DNA is DNA polymerase: a VERY Complicated protein that consists of 900-1000 amino acids -- all of which are linked up and folded correctly -- and that such a complex molecule would NEVER just form all by itself. Note also that RNA polymerase is even MORE complicated -- and consists of about 3,000 (properly linked) amino acids -- and that over 100 different proteins are required in the transcription process. See Signature in the Cell by Stephen Meyer for references: and more details.
Note also that to simulate the cytoplasm, or cytozol, that exists in live cells, the right amount of "salt buffers," magnesium chloride, and water are needed so as to create an environment that has and maintains a PH of between 7.35--7.45.
Note also that a pre-existing biologically-derived (and/or pre-programmed) DNA "template" or copy of an existing DNA is requited, along with a DNA starter sequence.
Note also that the replication, or amplification, does NOT take place in an outdoor pool or ocean, but rather in a highly controlled environment: i.e. a laboratory or manufacturing plant.
Note also that in living organisms, another complex molecule called helicase is required to unwind the DNA so that its information can be copied: and in the case of an RNA copy --- the DNA is immediately rewound back up. Or in the case of a DNA copy, BOTH strands of DNA --- after being unwound --- are immediately linked up with complimentary strands.
Note also that in spite of the above progress in understanding how DNA and it's associated machinery operates, scientists still can't explain how life evolved, nor where the information came from that is stored in our DNA. In fact, Francis Crick, one of the co-discoverers of DNA's structure, and a colleague (microbiologist) named Leslie Orgel, came up with the theory of Directed Panspermia, in an attempt to explain where life came from -- and remarked that however it happened seemed to be "almost a miracle." and for those who don't know, Directed Panspermia is the theory or belief that life came from outer space. They came up with it because they couldn't fathom how it could possibly have happened on earth in only 4.5 billion years.-- against the destructive forces of water, oxygen, and nature ... Crick also remarked that there was simply "too much speculation chasing after too few facts."
Also according to a wikipedia article on Polymerase Chain Reactions, we are told that:
"The method relies on thermal cycling, consisting of cycles of repeated heating and cooling of the reaction ..."
"These thermal cycling steps are necessary ... to physically separate the two strands in a DNA double helix at a high temperature in a process called DNA melting."
Then the reaction is cooled, whereby: ...
"each strand is then used as the template ... (by) the DNA polymerase ... (to amplify, or copy) the target DNA. The selectivity of PCR results from the use of primers that are complementary to the DNA region targeted for amplification under specific thermal cycling conditions."
Not only are specific (heating and cooling) temperatures called for, but also a specific type of polymerase that can withstand the heat without breaking down. In this regard, the same article tells us that:
"Almost all PCR applications employ a heat-stable DNA polymerase, such as Taq polymerase, an enzyme originally isolated from the bacterium Thermus aquaticus."
Note with regard to the "salt buffers" mentioned above that are required to maintain the proper pH (of about 7.35-7.45) for DNA, RNA, and proteins to exist and function properly. In addition to magnesium chloride: they appear to be a complicated mixture of specifically designed chemical mixtures: that are chosen or selected for each type of molecule that is being manufactured and/or purified. For example, from an article on how to Optimize elution conditions for immunoaffinity purification, we are told that the ... 1
“Appropriate buffer conditions for binding and elution steps in affinity purification are as varied as the types of molecules concerned and their chemical binding properties.” And that: “Unique binding/elution conditions exist for certain affinity systems, such as between lectins and sugars, chelated divalent metals and histidine tags, and substrates and enzymes; however, conditions for binding and elution of antibody-antigen affinity interactions (immunoaffinity) are more predictable. Antibody-antigen binding usually is most efficient in aqueous buffers at physiological pH and ionic strength, such as in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Consequently, elution often can be accomplished by raising or lowering the pH or altering the ionic state to disrupt the binding interaction.
"Which type of elution condition (pH, ionic strength, chaotrope, or denaturant) is most effective for a particular antibodyantigen interaction depends on the specific composition of ionic, hydrophobic and hydrogen bonds involved." Emphasis Added
To "elute" means to recover or bind together -- as when two proteins bind together to each other -- or to another molecule.
And in an article on Phosphate Buffered Saline from wikipedia we are told that:
"Phosphate buffered saline (abbreviated PBS) is a buffer solution commonly used in biological research. It is a water-based salt solution containing sodium chloride, sodium phosphate, and, in some formulations, potassium chloride and potassium phosphate. The buffer's phosphate groups help to maintain a constant pH."
See also: Hanks' Salts and Buffer Solution
Why Abiogenesis is Impossible: http://www.trueorigin.org/abio.asp
Scientific Evidence that God Created Life http://www.creationism.org/heinze/SciEvidGodLife.htm
Cell-Free Protein Synthesis and Peptide Synthesis
More information on DNA polymerase and helicase can be found via the links below:
Helicase is the molecule that unwinds the DNA so that its information can be extracted and copied.
See also the Links below
DNA Transcription #1: Making RNA from a DNA Template
DNA Replication: Splitting Strands and Copying them: Simulated
DNA Replication: Splitting Strands and Copying them: Illustrated
DNA to (Mobile) mRNA to Ribosome/DNA Reader/Transcriber/Protein Factory
DNA Transcription (into RNA molecule) and Protein Assembly
Note: If the Link above doesn't work simply go to www.youtube.com
and type in the Title words above the Link in their Search bar: and Search for it.