The Big Bang  
The Age of the Earth: Part III

Another pillar on which Old Earth beliefs rest is the Big Bang, and the proposed slow expansion of the Universe.  However, recent discoveries suggest that something is wrong with the Big Bang theory itself and the way it has been portrayed to the public.  That's because astronomers and cosmologists really DON'T have it all figured out.  For example, it has been said that:

"The currently popular cosmological model is subject to many doubts based upon observational data which suggest that, perhaps, there never was a Big Bang." 1

This statement came from three well respected astronomers and was published in a prestigious scientific journal in 1990.  Another article carried the following introductory headline:

"There's not one crisis but two:  the universe seems to be younger than the stars in it, and a huge chunk of it is headed in the wrong direction, fast.  As cosmologists scramble for answers, no theory is safe anymore." 2

A more recent article stated the following about the "Standard" (Big Bang) model.

"Predications based on the Big Bang can account for less than 20% of the mass and density of the known, observable Hubble length universe. Nor can this theory explain gravity, the discordant data on red shifts, galaxy distribution, colliding galaxies, the abundance of hydrogen and helium, the existence of elementary particles, and why the movement of distant galaxies appears to be accelerating."

"Critics of the standard model say that only the addition of ad hoc hypothetical appendages and parameters which are constantly adjusted have prevented the Big Bang theory from complete collapse." 3

History of the Bang:
The theory of the Big Bang was first conceived as a result of the work of American astronomer, Edwin Hubble.  Hubble was the first to propose the idea of an expanding Universe. 4  If he is correct, and if we could travel back into the past, to the beginning of time, before it all expanded (or so the theory goes), then there must have been a time when everything was clumped together into one tiny ball of matter.  And then we are told that something happened ...

Suddenly this tiny clump of matter is supposed to have exploded into a Big Bang, and then Voila!  Seven to 20 billion years later (depending on whom you ask, and what year you asked them), here we are... without any sort of Intelligence to plan out, or act upon any of that matter.  And as preposterous as this is to the laws of nature, and logic, and common sense itself, it is still the ONLY viewpoint that is allowed to be taught in public school classrooms today: for any viewpoint that even hints at the strong probability of a Creator being involved is said to be off limits to so-called "science" and logic, and out of the realm of  "science", and therefore should not be allowed to be examined and explored, much less even mentioned to curious students: who we are supposed to believe shouldn't be exposed to logic and common sense, but rather only to progressive liberal fantasies that don't make sense.

Those who promote this theory also usually speculate that this small clump of matter, that contained all the matter in the universe, was no larger than a golf ball.

In other words, the Big Bang theory speculates that out of a great chaotic explosion came all of the order and complexity that we see around us today, with no intelligence required to plan out, design or build anything.  In reality though, this theory is nothing more than an attempt by men (whose knowledge is quite limited) to try and explain how they think we might have been created without a Creator.  For this reason, the Big Bang theory goes hand in hand with the theory of evolution, which is an attempt to do likewise.  Small wonder that those who promote the Big Bang are also, more often than not, believers in evolution.

In reality though, astronomers are not even sure that the Universe is expanding. 5,6,7  That's because no one has ever seen it doing so.  Rather the expansion of the Universe (theory) is based on indirect evidence, such as the red shift of many stars and galaxies. 

Some scientists are also trying to tell us that the cosmic microwave background radiation (or CMB) also supports the belief in an expanding Universe.  The actual data appears to contradict it.  

Even if the Universe is expanding, speculative theories such as the Big Bang still cannot account for the order and complexity that we see around us.  This is because, explosions are never observed to create order, but rather disorder and chaos.  Also because we never actually observe  self-replicating organisms, or anything even remotely similar to them forming by themselves in laboratories or slime pools or ocean vents:  nor have we been able to make one ourselves by (LOTS and LOTS of) DNA programming (i.e. ordering), and organizing (i.e. planning, designing and ordering) all sorts of different  proteins  and even more complicated structures that are found inside of virtually all living organisms.  And even IF we ever get to the point where we can DESIGN one (???) ... it takes an almost preposterous amount of faith to expect or suppose that the blind and destructive forces of nature could -- over any amount of time -- accomplish a feat or this magnitude.  For to do so would be like randomly typing characters on a typewriter and coming up with a dictionary, or a book or some sort... with readable data that was highly organized.

However, in spite of these facts many scientists apparently Want to believe that somehow, in a land far, far away, on Planet Somewhere, the Impossible happened.  Not only that, but they also Want us to believe likewise.  It's as if they Want to believe in anything but the very  Creator who made them: even when that is where the evidence clearly leads.  Why this is we may never know.  Perhaps because they don't like the idea that they were created by a being far greater, and wiser than they, or perhaps because they're upset that this Creator  would dare to try to assert any control over them and their lives: and especially if it were to involve any of their time, talents, or money.  Or perhaps they're simply too Proud to admit that they were wrong, or that they are afraid their colleagues Won't Approve of them if they were to admit that a Creator is, in fact, the best and most logical explanation of how we got here.  

Red Shift, Blue Shift and Distant Starlight
There once was an astronomer whose name was Hubble.  And Mr. Hubble noticed that some stars have an orange or reddish color to them while others are white or green or bluish.  So Mr. Hubble theorized that this was because they were either (in the case of orange or reddish stars) moving away from us, or (in the case of bluish ones) moving toward us.  For when one considers that red colors have a longer wavelength than blue colors, and that a glowing object that is moving away from an observer will have a stretched out (or longer) wavelength than if it were stationary, or moving toward that observer, then the idea of red shift (or that reddish colored stars or galaxies are red because they are moving away from us) seems logical.  And since many stars outside of our own Milky Way galaxy are shifted to the red side of the color spectrum, many scientists have interpreted this as evidence that the Universe is expanding.

However, there are a few unexplained problems with the data: one of which is that almost all of the most distant galaxies are blue. 8,9  This suggests that they are moving toward us, and that the Universe is not expanding, but rather imploding or coming back together.

Another problem with regard to the red-shift / expansion theory concerns some observations made by American astronomer William Tiff, and later verified by British astronomers Bruce Guthrie and William Napier, who reported that:

"New evidence has been found to support the controversial claim that the red shifts or nearby galaxies show a periodic pattern: that is, they are 'bunched' together at regular intervals..."  And that " physics is needed to explain them." 10

They also reported that the odds of the stair-stepped (periodic) pattern occurring in the red shift were about 1 in 100,000.  

This means that, if the Universe is (or was) expanding, then it appears that the expansion itself was controlled, as opposed to being a randomly scattered explosion.  To those who reject the idea of (and belief in) a Creator/God, this evidence may be unsettling; however, to those who believe in God, such a concept it is readily acceptable since we are told very plainly in Psalm 104:2 and Isaiah 40:22, and various other places in the Old Testament, that God, in fact, S-T-R-E-T-C-H-E-D --  O-U-T the Heavens: meaning that before He did so, the whole universe was much closer together.  This also explains how light beams from far away galaxies could reach the earth in a short amount of time: since before it was stretched out -- or when it was first created -- everything was much closer together, and therefore the light had a much shorter distance to travel to reach the Earth. 

In this regard, it is likely that the whole universe was stretched out like a rubber band, exponentially, and in short order: and that just as a rubber band stretches out at every place along its length (or exponentially), so also was the universe -- meaning that it would not take very long to do so.

For a more detailed explanation of this topic see Starlight and Time  by D. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D.. See also: How can we see distant stars in a young universe?, and Starlight ... withstands Attacks.

Another major problem with the red-shift expansion theory are observations by astronomers Halton Arp and Fred Hoyle.  For they have discovered galaxies with “very different red shifts” that “appear to be connected.” 10,11,12  See Discovery Poses Cosmic Puzzle 11 and, More evidence for galactic "shells". 12

If the Data doesn't Fit, change the Rules a Bit:
In effect, astronomers are now saying that many of the closer galaxies are red shifted because they are moving away from us, but the furthest ones are blue shifted -- not because they are moving toward us, but -- because they are younger.  In other words, since the blue-shift (for-furthest-galaxies) data doesn't fit with the red shift theory, for objects that are supposed to be moving away from us, and since we are not ready to completely dump the Big Bang, then we'll simply change the rules a bit, by saying that the furthest galaxies are blue shifted, not because they are moving toward us, but because they are young, while the red ones are red (not because they are old, but) because they are moving away from us.  In other words, they want it both ways.

For if the Universe were indeed expanding, and if the galaxies were all created as the result of a Big Bang, then they would all have formed at about the same time: meaning that the furthest galaxies should have the highest degree of red shift (and actually be red, as opposed to blue).  But since they don't, astronomers are now saying that the blue color has nothing at all to do with their motion, but is simply a sign of their age.

Age Discrepancies:
Other problems also spell trouble for the Big Bang.  For example, measurements made by two separate teams of astronomers contradict what astrophysicists have been saying for years: i.e. that:

"... there is almost no doubt that the oldest stars in the Milky Way... are at least 14 billion years old." 13

However two separate studies by well respected teams of astronomers, have indicated that the Universe is only 7-12 billion years old.  This, of course, presents a problem for cosmology, since:

"A universe younger than the stars it contains is, to say the least, a fundamental contradiction." 13

Regarding these measurements, and other unexplained data, one astronomer remarked that:

"It would be premature to panic... But if these results are confirmed, we theorists will be in big trouble.  We really have no good ways of explaining these observations. 13

And regarding attempts to reconcile this age problem by stretching the theoretical formulas that (supposedly) prove such great ages for "old" stars, one astrophysicist said that:

"We really are happier with 17." 14

As in 17 billion years for the age of the oldest stars..., and that:

"Reports that the big bang is dead may be premature.  But the theory that the universe originated in a single, gigantic explosion of matter has definitely been dealt some savage blows in recent years." 15


"Observations of red supergiant stars in a nearby galaxy... suggest that the universe is less than 10 b.y. (billion years) old ... This is ... less than the ... age of some stars, posing an awkward problem for cosmologists." 16

In the above referenced article we note that Sandage and Tamman came up with an age of between 13-17 billion years for the universe, while Pierce, Ressler, and Sure came up with around 8 billion.  The latter group stated that:

"These values... imply that the Universe is only 7.6 to 9.6 b.y. old."  17

Isn't it amazing how astronomers know so much about stars that they can declare their ages just by looking at them?  And isn't it noteworthy how one team of astronomers can come up with 13-17 billion years for the age of the universe, while a few years later another team comes up with half that much. 17  Is it not possible, if not probable, that neither astronomers nor cosmologists really know how old the universe is?

One of the problems is the fact that the Universe is quite large, and the stars and galaxies in it are simply too far away to measure directly, or even with much accuracy.  For example, it is said that:

"The speed of a galaxy can be deduced from its Doppler shift of the lines in its spectrum.  Most of the motion of nearby galaxies is caused by the gravitational effects of their neighbors, so astronomers have to study galaxies at least 20 or 30 million light years away to disentangle the effects of the expanding universe." 17

The Big Bang's Foundation:
The evidence for the Big Bang consists of the following:
1. The alleged expansion of the Universe, based on the red shift.
2. The Microwave Background Radiation.
3. The abundance of helium in the Universe.

None of the above theoretical constructs are proof of a big bang, since each can be accounted for by things other than an explosion. 20  In this regard, the editors of New Scientist remarked that:

"Never has such a mighty edifice been built on such insubstantial foundations." And that: "... the big bang theory will definitely need some major modifications if it is to survive into the future." 21

From Big Bang to Long ... Smooth Bang:
The Jan. 1997 issue of Discover stated that:

"with the flood of (new) data, old ideas about galaxy formation are toppling.  Particularly imperiled is the notion that virtually all galaxies came into existence at the same moment in the distant past, emitting a collective burst of light like some grand fireworks display."  22

And that: 

"Now...astronomers believe that galaxies (were created) ... "not all at once but continuously ... over billions of years." 22

The only thing the author didn't tell us is what it was that made astronomers change their "notion" about the "collective burst of light" (i.e. their former belief in the Big Bang) and why they now think that new galaxies are continually being created.  However, the author did give a clue when she stated that astronomers:

"... figured there was a precise era when galaxies were first constructed, when all those islands of new stars 'turned on' in relative unison ... (they) therefore were looking for signs of a sudden eruption of light in the distant cosmos."  22

And so... 

"For years they probed the distant cosmos and came up empty handed.  They could say only that distant galaxies and clusters looked a bit 'bluer,' a sign perhaps of heightened star formation.  Young and massive stars... tend to put out more blue light."  22 

At least that's what we are being told to believe.

Perhaps astronomers and cosmologists really don't know all that much about how our universe (and the stars in it) were created, or even when it was created?  Perhaps they don't even know whether it is expanding or collapsing?  For those who doubt this, consider the following remarks from Astronomy magazine:

"Four years ago an ambitious pair of young astronomers ... looked deep into the ... sky trying to confirm a prediction made by every respectable cosmological theory.  On very large scales, these theories said, the universe should be moving just one way -- outward..."

"That is not the way it worked out.  Instead, Laur and Postman found that a huge chunk of the universe appears to be heading off ... toward some far off point in the direction of Virgo ..." 23

Laur and Postman's results sent shock waves through the world of cosmology.  If all that mass is moving away on so large a scale, then the big bang was not as smooth and uniform as virtually all modern cosmological theories demand.  As one astronomer put it, 'If this result is true then we know less than nothing.'" 24 

Cepheid Variables and Great Distances
Because the universe is so large, astronomers are unable to measure distances to the overwhelming majority of stars and galaxies directly, but must devise other (indirect) methods of doing so, such as the use of stars called Cepheid variables.  

Cepheids are stars that vary in brightness over time.  The time it takes for them to go from their brightest phase to their dimmest and back again is referred to as the period.  It usually varies from several hours to ten days.  But perhaps the most interesting thing about these stars is not that they vary, but rather that the individual star's period is believed to be proportional to its brightness, and therefore, it is believed that:

"... the distance to a Cepheid can be calculated from its period and its average brightness (or luminosity as observed from the earth)." 24

In principle, determining the value of the (proposed) expansion rate of the Universe (referred to as the Hubble Constant, or H.C.) is rather simple, requiring only a measurement of distance and velocity. 23  And although it is said that:  "... measuring the velocity of a galaxy is straightforward, gauging the distance is rather difficult."  24 

It should also be mentioned here that the "straightforward" method used to determine a galaxy's velocity is its red shift, 24 and that determining the distance to a galaxy requires the use of a "variety of complicated methods" ... none of which are "perfect." 24  In addition, each of the methods requires the use of Cepheid Variables. 

Difficulties with Cepheids and Great Distances
Even if astronomers are correct in saying that a Cepheid's period is related to its brightness, there are still assumptions which must be made in order to use this technique to calculate how far away a given Cepheid is.  And even if their assumptions are correct, there are still other significant problems.

For example, it must be assumed that Cepheids with similar periods are also the same size, and therefore the same brightness.  While this may be a reasonable assumption, it is an assumption nevertheless.  

But then there is the problem of  Polaris: for although it is a Cepheid, its pulse "mysteriously stopped beating" 24 for several years, and then, just as mysteriously, started up again at a different pulse rate, and now it appears to be slowing down again rather fast. 25,26,27,28,29

Another problem with using Cepheids as distances ladders (or yardsticks) is that their luminosity can be diminished by space dust.  To compensate for this  "astronomers either observe" (them) at infrared wavelengths where the effects are less significant," or "... at many different wavelengths so they can assess the effects and correct for them." 30

Then there is the local vicinity (or nearness) problem, since Cepheids are  "... bright enough to be observed only in the nearest galaxies, not the distant ones."  30    And although we are told that nearby galaxies are  "participating in the expansion of the universe, the gravitational interactions among the neighbors may be causing some to move faster or slower than the rest of the universe" 30 -- except for the huge chunk (which we are part of) that is moving toward Virgo.   

Therefore  "... to calculate the Hubble Constant, astronomers must accurately determine the distances to remote galaxies, and the task is extremely difficult."  30   

Translation: Although Cepheids are used as a "standard candle" to measure distances, they are not all that accurate, and especially when it comes to measuring distances to far-off galaxies.  Nevertheless, we are told that:

"astronomers have developed several methods for determining distances to remote galaxies," 30  but "Because many of these techniques must be calibrated using the Cepheid distance scale, they are considered secondary distance indicators ... Yet scientists cannot reach a consensus about which, if any, secondary indicators are reliable."  30 

"Furthermore," (astronomers) "disagree about how they should apply any of the methods and then whether they should adjust the results to account for various effects that might bias the results."  30

What is CMB and Does it Support the Big Bang?
CMB is short for Cosmic Microwave Background radiation.  It is supposed to be radiation left over from the Big Bang that we are told occurred from 7-20 billion years ago.  Scientists were hoping they could point a directional radiation detector in a certain direction in outer space, and come up with a greater amount of radiation coming from that direction.  They were hoping that such would be an indication of the direction that the far off bang is supposed to have come from, and provide a bit of confirmation for the Big Bang theory.  However, what they found is that no matter what direction they pointed their detector in, they got (almost exactly) the same result.  This was a big disappointment to Big Bang theorists and required some fancy footwork to "recover" (their theory) from.  Below are a few quotes with regard to this episode.

"...cosmic background radiation now seems to be contradicting our very existence, by telling us that matter in the early universe was distributed extremely smoothly, with no evidence of any lumpiness out of which galaxies could have condensed." 31

And that:

"Another problem was the very smoothness of the so-called background radiation.  Large scale surveys of space have shown that matter is not evenly distributed at all, but exists in the form of huge clusters of galaxies, and even larger-scale clumping, including some huge structures... like the Great Wall... while there are vast empty reaches..."  32

But they wanted some (sort of) "proof" ... so: 

"Big bang theorists decided that if they could find some variations or ripples in the pervasive 3K radiation, this would be an adequate explanation of the origin of the large-scale structures." And so: "To verify this prediction, NASA designed a special satellite detector called COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer).  COBE was launched in 1989; however, the expected ripples were never found." 32


"By 1991, no variation had been detected and the big bang theorists were beginning to panic Then in April of 1992 a computer program was used to analyze the data, and at last something was detected -- hot and cold spots differing in temperature by up to about 3/100,000ths of a degree Celsius. 9 32  Emphasis Added

Other possible explanations for these minute differences (other than a big bang) are given in references 10-13 of this paper. 32   Instrument sensitivity was not listed, but this is certainly also a possibility.

What Scientists Don't want to Admit about Star Formation:
Cosmologists have theorized that stars form from huge clouds of gasses (primarily hydrogen and helium) that somehow collapse in on themselves due to gravity.  But this is only speculation.  

The truth is that, as far as we know, gasses resist being compressed.  And the more they are compressed, the greater the outward force becomes.  However, in outer space, there is nothing to keep a cloud of gas from moving (or expanding) outward into a larger and larger area.  There is also no proof that once a cloud of gas gets so large it will somehow collapse in on itself.  Therefore, in outer space, the more gas there is, the more space that any given gas cloud will take up.  This is also why we (even today) still observe extremely large clouds of gasses way off in outer space.  And when we do so, they are not always round, but take up all sorts of different shapes.   And although some stars may be nuclear furnaces with lots of gas in them, we do not know how they came to be, nor have we ever actually seen a new star being created (i.e. turn on, or light up). 33  Some may say that this is because it would take "millions of years" for it to do so; however, such notions are nothing more than fanciful excuses for a theory that is weak.  For the fact is that once that furnace ignited, it would immediately begin producing light, that would immediately begin traveling outward in all directions.  

In other words, one would think that IF new stars were indeed still forming in other galaxies, that they would be doing so almost continuously, and that, at least some of them, somewhere in this great universe of ours would start "popping up" somewhere.  But as far as we know, NOT ONE of them has done so; however, we have witnessed their destruction on many occasions.

For more on this see Idolphins "Star Formation" page.  

The Secret Behind Dark Matter:
For some time now astronomers have been telling us that the universe consists of 95-99% cold dark matter (CDM),  that cannot be seen or even detected except by its gravitational force.  But they haven't told us why they believe this, other than to say that the motions of stars and galaxies demands it.  

What is wrong with this scenario?   Are cosmologists and astronomers hiding something from the public?  

Let's take a look at some of the things that have been said in this regard:

"With 95% of the visible universe consisting of cold dark matter of unknown composition, we are in the humiliating position of knowing only about 5% of what we see is made of."34  

And with regard to what this "dark matter" consists of we are "completely in the dark." 34 

And: " ... calculations have shown that the detected matter in the universe is only about 1% of the amount required to produce the gravitational attraction needed to form all the galaxies and clumps of galaxies, even within ... 15 billion years.  This problem was solved with the stroke of a pen..." 35 

And so, to account for this: "In the early 1980's, cosmological theoreticians decided that the universe was now made up of nearly 99% 'cold dark matter' (CDM) -- necessarily 'dark' because no one has ever seen it or detected it..." 35

In other words the theory of Dark Matter was invented out of thin air to try and explain why galaxies exist, and especially why they have "structure" (i.e. spiral arms) and look as if they are quite young -- when, of course, we just KNOW they must be very, very OLD.

For more on this see  What Happened to all that Dark Matter? 36  

Scientists don't really know how old the universe is, nor how old the earth is, and many of them are heavily biased due to their overly optimistic beliefs regarding the mysterious power of mother nature to make ordinary, dead, matter organize itself, and come to life.  The Laws of science and probability tell us that it would never happen in a trillion, trillion, years, ... and yet here we are.  Therefore, they want you to think that.... they know a lot more than those Creationists with regard to our origins and the age of things, and that only they should be allowed to teach our children what they believe -- no matter how unscientific or preposterous of a theory it turns out to be.

Copyright, 2006, 2011, 3013, Randy S. Berg; 
Copies may be distributed freely for educational purposes


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Copyright, 2006, 2011, 3013, Randy S. Berg; 
Copies may be distributed freely for educational purposes

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